Selected papers, reports and websites

Not in any particular order

Origins and spread

Before arrival

  1. A SARS-like cluster of circulating bat coronaviruses shows potential for human emergence
  2. Pathology of guinea pigs experimentally infected with a novel reovirus and coronavirus isolated from SARS patients.
  3. SARS-CoV and emergent coronaviruses: viral determinants of interspecies transmission
  4. Evidence for ACE2-Utilizing Coronaviruses (CoVs) Related to Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome CoV in Bats
  5. Difference in Receptor Usage between Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) Coronavirus and SARS-Like Coronavirus of Bat Origin
  6. Age‐dependent differences in pulmonary host responses in ARDS: a prospective observational cohort study
  7. Mitigating the Impact of Pandemic Influenza through Vaccine Innovation

Event 201

Event 201 was a 3.5-hour pandemic tabletop exercise that simulated a series of dramatic, scenario-based facilitated discussions, confronting difficult, true-to-life dilemmas associated with response to a hypothetical, but scientifically plausible, pandemic. 15 global business, government, and public health leaders were players in the simulation exercise that highlighted unresolved real-world policy and economic issues that could be solved with sufficient political will, financial investment, and attention now and in the future.

The event was held on Friday, October 18, 2019, at the Pierre Hotel in New York, under the auspices of the John Hopkins Center for Health Security, the World Economic Forum, and the Bill & Melida Gates Foundation.

Event 201 simulates an outbreak of a novel zoonotic coronavirus transmitted from bats to pigs to people that eventually becomes efficiently transmissible from person to person, leading to a severe pandemic. The pathogen and the disease it causes are modeled largely on SARS, but it is more transmissible in the community setting by people with mild symptoms.

The ficticious virus/disease used in this exercise was called CAPS (Coronavirus Acute Pulmonary Syndrome).

Also see the videos.


After arrival

  1. The Proximal Origin of SARS-CoV-2
  2. The Novel Coronavirus, 2019-nCoV, is Highly Contagious and More Infectious Than Initially Estimated
  3. Preparedness and vulnerability of African countries against importations of COVID-19: a modelling study
  4. Deposition of respiratory virus pathogens on frequently touched surfaces at airports
  5. Return of the Coronavirus: 2019-nCoV
  6. SARS-CoV-2 Viral Load in Upper Respiratory Specimens of Infected Patients
  7. Defining the Epidemiology of Covid-19 — Studies Needed
  8. Transmission of 2019-nCoV Infection from an Asymptomatic Contact in Germany
  9. Clinical Characteristics of 138 Hospitalized Patients With 2019 Novel Coronavirus–Infected Pneumonia in Wuhan, China
  10. Novel Coronavirus Infection in Hospitalized Infants Under 1 Year of Age in China
  11. Diversity of coronavirus in bats from Eastern Thailand
  12. A strategy to prevent future epidemics similar to the 2019-nCoV outbreak
  13. Serological Evidence of Bat SARS-Related Coronavirus Infection in Humans
  14. Reviewing the History of Pandemic Influenza: Understanding Patterns of Emergence and Transmission
  15. Presumed Asymptomatic Carrier Transmission of COVID-19
  16. Looming threat of COVID-19 infection in Africa: act collectively, and fast
  17. Genomic epidemiology of novel coronavirus (HCoV-19)
  18. On the origin and continuing evolution of SARS-CoV-2
  19. Composition and divergence of coronavirus spike proteins and host ACE2 receptors predict potential intermediate hosts of SARS-CoV-2.
  20. Comparative genetic analysis of the novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV/SARS-CoV-2) receptor ACE2 in different populations
  21. A Hint on the COVID-19 Risk: Population Disparities in Gene Expression of Three Receptors of SARS-CoV
  22. Asians Do Not Exhibit Elevated Expression or Unique Genetic Polymorphisms for ACE2, the Cell-Entry Receptor of SARS-CoV-2
  23. Receptor recognition by novel coronavirus from Wuhan: An analysis based on decade-long structural studies of SARS
  24. Tissue distribution of ACE2 protein, the functional receptor for SARS coronavirus. A first step in understanding SARS pathogenesis.
  25. Nicotine and the renin-angiotensin system.
  26. High expression of ACE2 receptor of 2019-nCoV on the epithelial cells of oral mucosa.
  27. Aerosol and surface stability of HCoV-19 (SARS-CoV-2) compared to SARS-CoV-1
  28. Coronavirus Disease 2019: Coronaviruses and Blood Safety
  29. Impact of non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) to reduce COVID-19 mortality and healthcare demand
  30. Estimating the number of infections and the impact of non-pharmaceutical interventions on COVID-19 in 11 European countries
  31. Review of Ferguson et al “Impact of non-pharmaceutical interventions...”
  32. Relationship between the ABO Blood Group and the COVID-19 Susceptibility
  33. Loss of sense of smell as marker of COVID-19 infection
  34. Estimating clinical severity of COVID-19 from the transmission dynamics in Wuhan, China
  35. High Temperature and High Humidity Reduce the Transmission of COVID-19
  36. The effect of control strategies to reduce social mixing on outcomes of the COVID-19 epidemic in Wuhan, China: a modelling study
  37. Structural basis of receptor recognition by SARS-CoV-2
  38. Epidemiology of Covid-19 in a Long-Term Care Facility in King County, Washington
  39. Will Coronavirus Pandemic Diminish by Summer?
  40. High Temperature and High Humidity Reduce the Transmission of COVID-19
  41. Turbulent Gas Clouds and Respiratory Pathogen Emissions: Potential Implications for Reducing Transmission of COVID-19
  42. Extreme genomic CpG deficiency in SARS-CoV-2 and evasion of host antiviral defense
  43. Clinical characteristics of COVID-19 patients with digestive symptoms in Hubei, China: a descriptive, cross-sectional, multicenter study
  44. Susceptibility of ferrets, cats, dogs, and other domesticated animals to SARS–coronavirus 2
  45. Susceptibility of ferrets, cats, dogs, and other domesticated animals to SARS–coronavirus 2
  46. Projecting the transmission dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 through the postpandemic period
  47. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 RNA Detected in Blood Donations
  48. High Contagiousness and Rapid Spread of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2
  49. COVID-19 Outbreak Associated with Air Conditioning in Restaurant, Guangzhou, China, 2020
  50. Aerosol and Surface Distribution of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 in Hospital Wards, Wuhan, China, 2020
  51. Phylogenetic network analysis of SARS-CoV-2 genomes
  52. Epidemiology of COVID-19 Among Children in China
  53. COVID-19 in Children in the United States: Intensive Care Admissions, Estimated Total Infected, and Projected Numbers of Severe Pediatric Cases in 2020
  54. Viral load dynamics and disease severity in patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 in Zhejiang province, China, January-March 2020: retrospective cohort study
  55. SARS-Cov-2 RNA Found on Particulate Matter of Bergamo in Northern Italy: First Preliminary Evidence
  56. The major genetic risk factor for severe COVID-19 is inherited from Neanderthals


  1. A rapid advice guideline for the diagnosis and treatment of 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) infected pneumonia (standard version)
  2. Practical recommendations for critical care and anesthesiology teams caring for novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) patients
  3. Vital Surveillances: The Epidemiological Characteristics of an Outbreak of 2019 Novel Coronavirus Diseases (COVID-19) — China, 2020
  4. Treatment with Convalescent Plasma for Influenza A (H5N1) Infection
  5. Therapeutic and triage strategies for 2019 novel coronavirus disease in fever clinics
  6. 2019-Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV): estimating the case fatality rate – a word of caution
  7. RNA vaccines: a novel technology to prevent and treat disease
  8. Correlation of Chest CT and RT-PCR Testing in Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in China: A Report of 1014 Cases
  9. Characteristics of and Important Lessons From the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Outbreak in China
  10. Clinical Characteristics of Coronavirus Disease 2019 in China
  11. Feasibility of controlling COVID-19 outbreaks by isolation of cases and contacts
  12. Vitamin D supplementation to prevent acute respiratory tract infections: systematic review and meta-analysis of individual participant data
  13. Therapeutic strategies in an outbreak scenario to treat the novel coronavirus originating in Wuhan, China
  14. Positive RT-PCR Test Results in Patients Recovered From COVID-19
  15. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) as a SARS-CoV-2 receptor: molecular mechanisms and potential therapeutic target
  16. Zn2+ Inhibits Coronavirus and Arterivirus RNA Polymerase Activity In Vitro and Zinc Ionophores Block the Replication of These Viruses in Cell Culture
  17. The antiviral compound remdesivir potently inhibits RNA-dependent RNA polymerase from Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus
  18. Systematic Comparison of Two Animal-to-Human Transmitted Human Coronaviruses: SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV
  19. SARS-CoV-2 Cell Entry Depends on ACE2 and TMPRSS2 and Is Blocked by a Clinically Proven Protease Inhibitor
  20. Genomic characterisation and epidemiology of 2019 novel coronavirus: implications for virus origins and receptor binding
  21. Internet Book of Critical Care (IBCC) Covid-19
  22. Coronavirus: The Hammer and the Dance
  23. Clinical Outcomes in 55 Patients With Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 Who Were Asymptomatic at Hospital Admission in Shenzhen, China
  24. ACE-2 Expression in the Small Airway Epithelia of Smokers and COPD Patients: Implications for COVID-19
  25. Neutralizing antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 in a COVID-19 recovered patient cohort and their implications
  26. Possible Biological Explanations for Kids’ Escape from COVID-19
  27. Evaluation of heating and chemical protocols for inactivating SARS-CoV-2
  28. SARS-CoV-2 infects T lymphocytes through its spike protein-mediated membrane fusion
  29. COVID-19: Attacks the 1-Beta Chain of Hemoglobin and Captures the Porphyrin to Inhibit Human Heme Metabolism
  30. Does recombinant human Erythropoietin administration in critically ill COVID-19 patients have miraculous therapeutic effects?
  31. Inhibition of SARS-CoV-2 (previously 2019-nCoV) infection by a highly potent pan-coronavirus fusion inhibitor targeting its spike protein that harbors a high capacity to mediate membrane fusion.
  32. First 12 patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in the United States
  33. An orally bioavailable broad-spectrum antiviral inhibits SARS-CoV-2 in human airway epithelial cell cultures and multiple coronaviruses in mice
  34. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2−Specific Antibody Responses in Coronavirus Disease 2019 Patients
  35. Inactivation of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 by WHO-Recommended Hand Rub Formulations and Alcohols
  36. A nicotinic hypothesis for Covid-19 with preventive and therapeutic implications
  37. Association between regional selenium status and reported outcome of COVID-19 cases in China
  38. Fasting blood glucose at admission is an independent predictor for 28-day mortality in patients with COVID-19 without previous diagnosis of diabetes: a multi-centre retrospective study
  39. A Supercomputer Analyzed Covid-19 — and an Interesting New Theory Has Emerged
  40. The effect of whey protein on viral infection and replication of SARS-CoV-2 and pangolin coronavirus in vitro
  41. Vitamin D sufficiency, a serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D at least 30 ng/mL reduced risk for adverse clinical outcomes in patients with COVID-19 infection
  42. The FDA-approved drug ivermectin inhibits the replication of SARS-CoV-2 in vitro
  43. Ivermectin for Prevention and Treatment of COVID-19 Infection
  44. Early Multidrug Outpatient Treatment of SARS-CoV-2 Infection (COVID-19) and Reduced Mortality Among Nursing Home Residents
  45. SARS–CoV–2 Spike Impairs DNA Damage Repair and Inhibits V(D)J Recombination In Vitro
  46. Strong alkaline electrolyzed water efficiently inactivates SARS-CoV-2, other viruses, and Gram-negative bacteria


  1. A Swiss Doctor on Covid-19
  2. Making the Fight against the Coronavirus Pandemic Sustainable
  3. Report 12 - The global impact of COVID-19 and strategies for mitigation and suppression
  4. Impacts of COVID-19 on childhood malnutrition and nutrition-related mortality
  5. Breaking the silence
  6. After Covid, we must embrace critical thinking again

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